|On The Evolution of Galaxies from a Central Origin.
***Time was when all scientists were outsiders … from
Nicholaus Copernicus to Charles Darwin. Editors of New
Scientist, “It pays to Keep a Little Craziness,” New Scientist
September 9, 2006.
Universe always expands as a globe from an original very small hot dense globe ‘o’ getting larger and cooler as it does so. Today
billions of Earth years later the Universal Globe and the Cosmos within it is astronomically enormous. Newton and Einstein’s Universe
(one solar system/one galaxy) is, on the global scale size, just a speck. Now we have the correct shape we can begin, for centuries to
come, to fill in the map of the Universal globe just as for hundreds of years past we have been ‘filling’ in the map of the Globe of Earth.
The exciting part of each globe, Earth and the Universal Cosmos is the part we still have to fill in. Science over, it has scarcely begun.
Hubble's 'flat, sagging mattress Universe' established since
1930 now has a Global alternative made possible by new key
technology, scientific evidence, & a bigger picture not
available to him or any of his contemporaries?
Copernicus & Darwin both initiated BIG DEBATES among
those interested. This pretty much all an individual, in any
human endeavour, can achieve at a New Beginning.
Today there are millions of diagrams of a vast ballooning
Universe with all the galaxies located on a rim. But where
was (past) the location of the Origin all these billions of
galaxies with and all their continually transforming and
changing internal contents?
So far every science theory, every physical law, every star
map, the Big Bang Theory itself has its origin in a World
View from human home planet Earth. World Views have
changed over the millennia as technology has advanced -
optical lens telescopes & microscopes, spectroscopes,
electron microscopes, radio telescopes, & 1965 & again
1989 (NASA) thermoscopes (helium cooled radio
- Earth, flat or global, stationary in space (ancients).
- Then a stationary Solar System – the planet Earth spins
around the Sun coming back a year later to almost the
same position in space (Newton).
- Then a ‘flat stationary Universe’ (Einstein 1915).
- Then a ‘flat expanding Universe’ (Hubble 1930).
- Now another alternative – ‘a global Dark (vaccum)
Energy Universe1 expanding from a Central Origin’.
***Human curiosity about our own world and the wider
Universe has expanded vastly over the past few decades...
continues to be the aspect of space that sparks the public
imagination…feeds into innovative terrestrial applications
and directly contributes to industrial competitiveness.
Cosmic Vision 2020 European Space Agency May 2005.
***The last fifty years has been the Golden Age of American
space science discoveries gained from intercepting that
which was previously hidden from all of us by reason of -
less advanced technology.
The Great Debate: parts 1 is now a necessity if only for
two reasons – the reason given by the European Space
Agency May 2005 and the United States National Center for
Education and the Economy 2007.
"The core problem is that our education and training systems
were designed for another era. We can get where we must
only by changing the whole system." The United States
National Center Education & the Economy published 2007.
Hubbles Law of Receding Galaxies 1930.
In formulating his law Hubble 1930 forgot if he ever knew,
one significant fact: the wavelengths of light, sound, radio,
radar begin to lose some energy over distance as soon as
they leave a source. This happens whether the source is a
Sun/star, an opera singer, a light bulb, or from a time before
Suns, opera singers, or light bulbs – the Big Bang Origin.
Note1. This energy loss is so small that it can be masked
over shorter distances by the so called Doppler Effect 1843
but over much longer distance example from galaxies to
Earth, from Big Bang Origin the energy losses become far
This loss of some thermal (heat) energy is the cause of the
well known 'shift' towards the red end (less energy content)
of the radiation spectrum & why atomic clocks as with all
clocks need 'energy refuelling' or they lose time .
Diagram1. Radiation spectrum.
High energy blue >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Low Energy Red
2013 Another Era - On Dark Energy.
- Dark Energy: “an entire new ocean of discovery"
extraordinary opportunity for physics and astronomy
community... as we start probing everything from
structure of atom to entire Universe". M. Aizenman.
National Science Foundation. USA.
- Dark Energy: “central importance to our
understanding of how and why Universe works … on
the path to a comprehensive physical theory”. Steven
Weinberg University of Texas. USA.
The causes of Dark Energy: paper1 after the INTRODUCTION
Adams (UK) 2014.